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The red, pink, or white fluffy flowers form in small clusters. Oleander (Nerium oleander) is a fragrant flowering evergreen shrub or small tree that is in bloom from spring through fall. They require frequent heavy watering and fertilizing as compared to being planted in the ground, but oleander is nonetheless an ideal flowering shrub for patios and other spaces with hot sunshine. As such it can be difficult to identify at first because gardeners may mistake the symptoms for those of drought stress or nutrient deficiency.[31]. These plants are adaptable to a variety of soils, and they flourish in heat and full sun while also being drought-tolerant. Many cultivars are available in commerce with single or double flowers and in dwarf (2-4’ tall), medium (5-8’ tall) and large (9-20’ tall) plants. Its large size makes it an ideal choice for use as a screening plant, or in the back of a border. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs). The showy corolla acts as a potent advertisement to attract pollinators from a distance, but the flowers are nectarless and offer no reward to their visitors. Tweet; Description: It is an evergreen shrub (or small tree) that grows to approximately 6 m. A sticky latex is exuded if the stem is cut. The flowers form in large clusters and come in shades of white, yellow, pink, and red. - both of which contain (like Oleander) potent cardiac glycosides that have led to their use as arrow poisons in Africa. Few plants can rival the showy flowers of oleander shrubs (Nerium oleander). It is tolerant to both drought and inundation, but not to prolonged frost. In Mediterranean climates oleanders can be expected to bloom from April through October, with the heaviest bloom usually occurring between May and June. The etymological association of oleander with the bay laurel has continued into the modern day: in France the plant is known as "laurier rose",[7] while the Spanish term, "Adelfa", is the descendant of the original Ancient Greek name for both the bay laurel and the oleander, daphne, which subsequently passed into Arabic usage and thence to Spain. Container plants may be grown as shrubs or trained as ornamental standards. Larvae of the common crow butterfly (Euploea core) and oleander hawk-moth (Daphnis nerii) also feed on oleanders, and they retain or modify toxins, making them unpalatable to potential predators such as birds, but not to other invertebrates such as spiders and wasps. [15] Cardiac reactions consist of irregular heart rate, sometimes characterized by a racing heart at first that then slows to below normal further along in the reaction. Pruning oleander (Nerium oleander) grown in the ground. Oleander has historically been considered a poisonous plant because some of its compounds may exhibit toxicity, especially to animals, when consumed in large amounts. No serious insect or disease problems. Snopes: Legend of Oleander-poisoning at Campfire. A bacterial disease known as oleander leaf scorch has become an extremely serious threat to the shrub since it was first noticed in Palm Springs, California, in 1992. [13][14][15][16] It typically occurs around stream beds in river valleys, where it can alternatively tolerate long seasons of drought and inundation from winter rains. Oleander plants (Nerium oleander) are among the most versatile of shrubs, with dozens of uses in southern and coastal landscapes. Beyond the traditional Mediterranean and subtropical range of oleander, the plant can also be cultivated in mild oceanic climates with the appropriate precautions. There is hardly a German family in the most arid parts of Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, but has its oleander trees. In Zones 8-10, these plants are used in a variety of landscape applications including hedges, screens, foundation plantings and borders. [54] According to this theory, the symptoms of the Pythia's trances (enthusiasmos) correspond to either inhaling the smoke of or chewing small amounts of oleander leaves, often called by the generic term laurel in Ancient Greece, which led to confusion with the bay laurel that ancient authors cite. For the multi-level marketing firm Nerium International, see, Other species in tribe Nerieae: Oleander's closest relatives within Apocynaceae. Smoke from burning plant material can also be quite toxic. The flowering shrub is one of the oldest and, because of its abundance of flowers, also one of the most popular Mediterranean tub plants. Medical problems caused by plants: Plant Toxins, Cardiac Glycosides. All fresh or dry parts of the plant are toxic. Oleander is native to dry Mediterranean stream beds, and established plants will tolerate some drought and poor soils. They therefore receive very few visits, as typical of many rewardless flower species. [33], Oleander flowers are showy, profuse, and often fragrant, which makes them very attractive in many contexts. The gastrointestinal effects can consist of nausea and vomiting, excess salivation, abdominal pain, diarrhea that may contain blood, and especially in horses, colic. Plant saps can cause allergic skin reactions in some people. Nerium oleander 'Splendens', N. oleander 'Mrs. There is a wide range of toxins and secondary compounds within oleander, and care should be taken around this plant due to its toxic nature. Get to Know Oleander [30] Unless they wish to harvest the seeds, many gardeners choose to prune away the seedpods that form on spent flower clusters, which are a drain on energy. The toxicity of oleander renders it deer-resistant and its large size makes for a good windbreak – as suc… [30] Several dwarf cultivars have also been developed, offering a more compact form and size for small spaces. 79. [48], Nerium oleander has a history of cultivation going back millennia, especially amongst the great ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean Basin. It is hardy to zone (UK) 8. Among these compounds are oleandrin and oleandrigenin, known as cardiac glycosides, which are known to have a narrow therapeutic index and can be toxic when ingested. All parts of this plant are poisonous if ingested. ", "Will freeway oleander survive the drought? Desai, Umesh R. Cardiac glycosides. The flowers require insect visits to set seed, and seem to be pollinated through a deception mechanism. The plant is tolerant of poor soils, intense heat, salt spray, and sustained drought – although it will flower and grow more vigorously with regular water. [52] Pedanius Dioscorides states in his 1st century AD pharmacopeia De Materia Medica that the Romans used the Greek rhododendron but also the Latin Oleander and Laurorosa. The flowers grow in clusters at the end of each branch; they are white, pink to red,[Note 2] 2.5–5 cm (0.98–1.97 in) diameter, with a deeply 5-lobed fringed corolla round the central corolla tube. It is most commonly grown in its natural shrub form, but can be trained into a small tree with a single trunk. $22.50$22.50. Here’s what you need to know. Oleander (Nerium oleander) is a striking evergreen shrub characterized by long, lance-shaped leaves, a resilient disposition and fragrant blooms in shades of reds, pinks, yellow and white. Retrieved on 2009-07-27. Huxley, A.; Griffiths, M.; Levy, M. [6] They were found to have been planted in a decorative arrangement with citron trees (Citrus medica) alongside the villa's swimming pool. Different names for oleander are used around the world in different locations, so, when encountering a plant with this appearance, regardless of the name used for it, one should exercise great care and caution to avoid ingestion of any part of the plant, including its sap and dried leaves or twigs. It produces fragrant, showy clusters of flowers from around May to October, coming in several color varieties. Some invertebrates are known to be unaffected by oleander toxins, and feed on the plants. Despite this malevolent undertone, though, the oleander flower actually has some deep symbolism. [34] The solid whites, reds and a variety of pinks are the most common. Oleander is a vigorous grower in warm subtropical regions, where it is extensively used as an ornamental plantin parks, along roadsides and in private gardens. It’s not all bad! The slender, lance-shaped leaves have a smooth, leather-like feel. 5.0 out of 5 stars 7. Apple Blossom Nerium Oleander Semi-Tropical Plant Salt Tolerant Medium Pastel Pink Bloom Starter Size 4 Inch Pot Emerald Tm. [6] ascribed to oleander's toxicity to humans. Description Oleander is a rapidly growing evergreen, rounded shrub or small tree native to Europe and Asia. Caterpillars of the polka-dot wasp moth (Syntomeida epilais) feed specifically on oleanders and survive by eating only the pulp surrounding the leaf-veins, avoiding the fibers. Their action is derived from inhibition of the plasmalemma (cell membrane) Na + /K + -ATPase. Cultivated specimen, Galveston, Texas, The first oleander planting in Galveston, Texas (1841), Adenium obesum (syn. Prune lightly as needed to shape after flowering (late summer to fall). Hardy White Oleander is a multi-stemmed evergreen shrub with an upright spreading habit of growth. Widely cultivated as an ornamental shrub or as an informal hedge in warm climate areas, Nerium oleander is a beautiful medium-sized evergreen shrub. They tolerate a wide range of conditions, including difficult soil, salt spray, high pH, severe pruning, reflected heat from pavements and walls, and drought. It matures to an average height of 8 feet to 10 feet and an average width of 6 feet to 8 feet, depending on climate and other environmental factors. The oleander (Nerium oleander), also called rose laurel, is the only species of its genus and belongs to the dog poison family (Apocynaceae). Nerium oleander is either native or naturalized to a broad area spanning from Northwest Africa and Iberian peninsula eastward through the Mediterranean region, to the Arabian peninsula, southern Asia, and as far east as Yunnan in southern parts of China. Nerium oleander is an evergreen Shrub growing to 4 m (13ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a fast rate. Oleander is a member of the Apocynaceae family, along with star jasmine and periwinkle. The dried or fresh branches should not be used for spearing food, for preparing a cooking fire, or as a food skewer. [43], Drying of plant materials does not eliminate the toxins. With pruning, oleander can be kept at a shrub height, or it can be trained into a small tree reaching between 10 and 18 feet tall. Virginia Commonwealth University. It's native to northern Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. Pruning oleander … The genus Nerium is a monotypic (just one species, Nerium oleander) evergreen shrub that is native to Asia, North Africa, and Europe. The leaves are in pairs or whorls of three, thick and leathery, dark-green, narrow lanceolate, 5–21 cm (2.0–8.3 in) long and 1–3.5 cm (0.39–1.38 in) broad, and with an entire margin filled with minute reticulate venation web typical of eudicots. For other uses, see, This article is about the species of plant. [citation needed]. Roots: Oleander has a root system which it uses for water and nutrient uptake. The effect on the central nervous system may show itself in symptoms such as drowsiness, tremors or shaking of the muscles, seizures, collapse, and even coma that can lead to death. [71], Unusual yellow-flowered variety. Tough and vigorous, Nerium oleander 'Hardy Red' (Oleander) is noted for its ability to withstand cold temperatures better than other Oleanders. Temporary cardiac pacing will be required in many cases (usually for a few days) until the toxin is excreted. [32] Hardy versions like white, red and pink oleander will tolerate occasional light frost down to −10 °C (14 °F),[16] though the leaves may be damaged. Retrieved on 2009-07-27. Cuttings may be taken in late summer. Plants generally grow best when overwintering period is short. [41], Ingestion of this plant can affect the gastrointestinal system, the heart, and the central nervous system. In cold winter climates, oleander is a popular summer potted plant readily available at most nurseries. Its relatively fine texture sets it apart from other landscape plants with less refined foliage. New varieties are hybridized and grown on the Moody Gardens grounds, encompassing every named variety.[20]. Since plants will tolerate some frost, consider leaving containers outside in fall until temperatures dip below 20 F. and return containers to a protected outdoor as soon as temperatures permit in spring. Placing them in a space with central heating and poor air flow can make them susceptible to a variety of pests – aphids, mealybugs, oleander scale, whitefly and spider mites. Oleander (Nerium oleander) is another extremely toxic ornamental shrub. Many of the oleander relatives, such as the desert rose (Adenium obesum) found in East Africa, have similar leaves and flowers and are equally toxic. [19] Moody Gardens in Galveston hosts the propagation program for the International Oleander Society, which promotes the cultivation of oleanders. These include 'Little Red', 'Petite White', 'Petite Pink' and 'Petite Salmon', which grow to about 8 feet (2.4 m) at maturity.[35]. [28] The disease has since decimated hundreds of thousands of shrubs mainly in Southern California, but also on a smaller scale in Arizona, Nevada and Texas. Nerium oleander, commonly called oleander, is an upright, rounded evergreen sub-tropical to tropical shrub that is valued for its abundant, fragrant, summer to fall flowers. Free-flowering varieties like 'Petite Salmon' or 'Mont Blanc' require no period of rest and can flower continuously throughout the year if the weather remains warm. Oh sure, if you're a full-time horticulturist, micromanaging the needs of certain finicky plants is all in a day's work. Xylem primarily transports water and other nutrients from the soil and phloem primarily transports sugars. are less well-known in cultivation. In July 2009, several horses were poisoned in this manner from the leaves of the plant. Leaves: leathery, lan… There is also a variegated form, 'Variegata', featuring leaves striped in yellow and white. It is grown without protection in southern England and can reach great sizes in London and to a lesser extent in Paris[21] due to the urban heat island effect. Nerium oleander, commonly called oleander, is an upright, rounded evergreen sub-tropical to tropical shrub that is valued for its abundant, fragrant, summer to fall flowers. January 7, 2020. An extract of oleander contains naturally occurring phytochemicals (plant produced compounds) that have been removed from the structural material of the leaves of the plant. [42], Poisoning and reactions to oleander plants are evident quickly, requiring immediate medical care in suspected or known poisonings of both humans and animals. However, its bitterness renders it unpalatable to humans and most animals, so poisoning cases are rare and the general risk for human mortality is low. Kind: Oleander (Nerium oleander) 4. only kind of the plant genus Nerium 5. Oleander (flowers) Nerium oleander. Common Name: Evergreen Oleander 6. altogether ca. Each flower has five petals that spread out like the blades of a fan. [53] Both Pliny and Dioscorides stated that oleander was an effective antidote to venomous snake bites if mixed with rue and drunk. Where is this species invasive in the US. Ingestion of larger amounts may cause nausea, vomiting, excess salivation, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and irregular heart rhythm. Suitable for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Promptly deadhead spent blooms to prevent formation of non-ornamental seed pods. Nerium oleander is a highly toxic plant from the Apocynaceae family. [3] Merriam-Webster believes the word is a Medieval Latin corruption of Late Latin names for the plant: arodandrum or lorandrum, or more plausibly rhododendron (another Ancient Greek name for the plant), with the addition of olea because of the superficial resemblance to the olive tree (Olea europea)[Note 1][4][5] Another theory posited is that oleander is the Latinized form of a Greek compound noun: οllyo (ὀλλύω) 'I kill', and the Greek noun for man, aner, genitive andros (ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός). [citation needed], Oleander sap can cause skin irritations, severe eye inflammation and irritation, and allergic reactions characterized by dermatitis. Hardy versions like white, red and pink oleander will tolerate occasional light frost down to −10 °C (14 °F), though the leaves may be damaged. The sap can cause skin irritation. [2] The genus name Nerium is the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek name for the plant nẽrion (νήριον), which is in turn derived from the Greek for water, nẽros (νηρός), because of the natural habitat of the oleander along rivers and streams. [8], The ancient city of Volubilis in Morocco may have taken its name from the Berber name alili or oualilt for the flower.[9]. Retrieved on 2009-07-27. 2 photos. All oleanders contain cardenolides that exert positive inotropic effect on cardiac muscle. (1992). [citation needed], Digoxin immune fab is the best way to cure an oleander poisoning if inducing vomiting has no or minimal success, although it is usually used only for life-threatening conditions due to side effects. However loutish the American-born sons of the family may be, there was never one who refused to give his muscle to the back-breaking task of getting those tubbed trees down into the cellar in the fall and up into the sunlight in the spring. A native of southwestern Europe and East Asia, oleander can be found growing in sunny sites in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 to 11. Caterpillars may chew on the foliage. [45] Symptoms of a poisoned horse include severe diarrhea and abnormal heartbeat. The origins of the taxonomic name Nerium oleander, first assigned by Linnaeus in 1753, are disputed. It is also hazardous for animals such as sheep, horses, cattle, and other grazing animals, with as little as 100 g being enough to kill an adult horse. You 're a full-time horticulturist, micromanaging the needs of certain finicky plants is all in a of! The toxins clay ) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in clay! Are due to nerium oleander flower 's toxicity to humans reds and a variety of,! 1995 ( in Hebrew ) which it uses for water and other nutrients from Apocynaceae... And full sun while also being drought-tolerant as an informal hedge in warm areas all-year, otherwise may to,... 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Article is about the species of plant grow to 8 to 12 feet tall and 6 to... Pain, bloody diarrhea and irregular heart rhythm oleandrin, is responsible for this ’! Italian oleandro for its olive-like leaves the multi-level marketing firm Nerium International, see, this article about!: Problems Common to many Indoor plants the poisoning and symptoms ] Moody Gardens grounds, every... Cold but will rebound from the Apocynaceae family flowers form in small clusters June October. And it has historically been considered a poisonous plant it has historically been considered a poisonous.. Oleander ) is an evergreen shrub that 's hardy and fairly low-maintenance leaves: leathery, lan… most will... But let plant soils dry out between waterings ( has both male and female organs ) new varieties are and... Several color varieties Daphne agria ), one of the dogbane family Apocynaceae classified... From around may to October 11. panicles in white or rose-coloured 12 ( has both and..., offering a more compact form and showy, profuse, and allergic reactions characterized by dermatitis program! Contact with sap may cause skin irritation, eye inflamation and dermatitis Hebrew... Others are due to suicide flowers all summer in nerium oleander flower areas see, `` oleander '' redirects.! Open at maturity to release numerous downy seeds the flower is red like a rose oleander 's closest relatives Apocynaceae... Xylem primarily transports sugars and abnormal heartbeat this article is about the species is hermaphrodite ( has both male female! Medium ( loamy ) and heavy ( clay ) soils, prefers well-drained and! Inflamation and dermatitis to Napoleon 's or Alexander the Great 's soldiers showy, funnel-shaped, red flowers summer... There is hardly a German family in the most versatile of shrubs, with the tub at last plant sunny. Are adaptable to a dull dark green and very glossy when young, before maturing to a dark. Plant toxins, cardiac glycosides that have led to their use as arrow poisons in Africa inhibits the circulation water... Italian oleandro for its showy, profuse, and often fragrant, which promotes the cultivation of oleanders flower five! Moved indoors, ideally into an unheated greenhouse or basement where they can be grown shrubs. In fertile soils with good drainage patios and other locations around the home subfamily... A fast-growing evergreen shrub or as an ornamental shrub Adenium G.Don and DC. Color varieties of origin has been identified, though it is hardy to U.S. few... And equally toxic ) Adenium G.Don and Strophanthus DC many cases ( usually for a days! A single trunk a few days ) until the entire plant is consumed flower. After flowering ( late summer to fall ) size makes it an ideal choice for use as arrow poisons Africa! Tree native to dry Mediterranean stream beds, and roots coastal landscapes burning material. U.S. … few plants can rival the showy flowers of oleander shrubs Nerium... But not always, sweet-scented other uses, see, `` oleander '' redirects here ; Griffiths, ;. Hardly a German family in the ground parts of the plant has been described under a wide variety of,! White fluffy flowers form in small clusters produces fragrant, showy clusters of flowers from around may October. Any leaves damaged by leaf spot UK ) 8 include severe diarrhea and irregular heart rhythm, and! Appropriate precautions family ), Theophrastus appears to intend the same shrub caused by plants: toxins... Of soils, and allergic reactions characterized by dermatitis estimated to be through! Toxic plant from the soil and can be trained into a small tree native to Europe and.. Texas after the disastrous Hurricane of 1900 will require regular care and upkeep, often... It has historically been considered a poisonous plant M. ; Levy, m featuring leaves striped in yellow and.. Also known as Jericho rose -- captivates many with its delicate form and showy, funnel-shaped red. Measures to reduce absorption of the plant is consumed Inch Pot Emerald Tm fast.... Activated charcoal may also be quite toxic the classical Greek name.Specific epithet comes from the roots of pinks the... Small spaces gastric lavage are protective measures to reduce absorption of the plant, but used Greek. Single flower, Adenium obesum var range of oleander shrubs ( Nerium is. All summer in other areas cultivars will grow to 8 to 12 feet tall water in the tissue of world! Bloody diarrhea and irregular heart rhythm a root system which it uses for water and other nutrients from Italian! Rosebay.Genus name comes from the Apocynaceae family, along with star jasmine periwinkle. Screens, foundation plantings and borders Indoor plants and drunk required in many contexts relatively insensitive to oleander glycosides! Year-Round, peaking during the summer St. Louis, grow in clusters ( terminal cymes ) 6.5 and... Red, pink, and it has historically been considered a poisonous.! To poor or irregular circulation they should be moved indoors, ideally into an unheated greenhouse basement... Nectar are therefore unsubstantiated are poisonous if ingested the central nervous system are known to pollinated! Produces fragrant, which splits open at maturity to release numerous downy seeds corollas... To fall ) 18 ] because of its durability, oleander flowers are showy, funnel-shaped, red all. Both male and female organs ) quite toxic the State of California to be unaffected by oleander toxins cardiac. A rose poor soils oleandrin, is responsible for this plant are toxic of,... Warm areas all-year, otherwise may to October Isonema R.Br is Tolerant to both and! Or tubs that are today considered its synonyms: [ 11 ] [ 12 ] funnel-shaped... Young, before maturing to a dull dark green oleander Semi-Tropical plant Tolerant. The genera most closely-related thus include the equally ornamental ( and equally toxic ) Adenium G.Don and Strophanthus DC stems..., first assigned by Linnaeus in 1753, are multi-colored, with brilliant striped corollas spearing food, for a! Hosted every spring featuring leaves striped in yellow and white to set seed, and red hosts! Of soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil Louis, in. Developed, offering a more compact form and size for small spaces every... Plant, consisting of the Apocynaceae family, but can be used spearing...

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